(h) Metallic bonding

1:52 (Triple only) know how to represent a metallic lattice by a 2-D diagram

When metal atoms join together the outer electrons become ‘delocalised’ which means they are free to move throughout the whole structure.

Metals have a giant regular arrangement of layers of positive ions surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons.

1:54 (Triple only) explain typical physical properties of metals, including electrical conductivity and malleability

Metals are good conductors because they have delocalised electrons which are free to move.


Metals are malleable (can be hammered into shape) because they have layers of ions that can slide over each other.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals