2:01 understand how the similarities in the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water provide evidence for their recognition as a family of elements

2:01 understand how the similarities in the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water provide evidence for their recognition as a family of elements

Group 1 metals, such as potassium, sodium and lithium, react with water to produce a metal hydroxide and hydrogen. For example:

          lithium   +   water   →   lithium hydroxide   +   hydrogen

          2Li (s)   +   2H₂O (l)   →   2LiOH (aq)   +   H₂ (g)

The observations for this reaction of lithium and water are:

  1. Fizzing
  2. Lithium floats and moves around on the water
  3. Lithium disappears

The reactions of sodium or potassium and water are somewhat similar, giving those observations and producing a metal hydroxide and water.

This similarity in reactions provides evidence that the 3 metals are in the same family of elements (group of the Periodic Table).

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals