2:14 Practical: determine the approximate percentage by volume of oxygen in air using a metal or a non-metal

2:14 Practical: determine the approximate percentage by volume of oxygen in air using a metal or a non-metal

The following 3 experiments can be used to determine that oxygen (O2) makes up approximately 20% by volume of air.

Copper

The copper is in excess and uses up the oxygen to form copper oxide (CuO).

All the oxygen in the air is therefore used up, and so the volume of the air decreases by about 20% (the percentage of oxygen in air).

 

Iron

The iron reacts with the oxygen in the air (rusting).

As long as the iron, oxygen and water are all in excess, the total volume of air enclosed by the apparatus decreases by about a fifth (20%) over several days.

 

Phosphorus

The phosphorus is lit with a hot wire.

It reacts with the oxygen in the air and causes the water level in the bell jar to rise by about 20%.

 

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals