2:35 understand acids and bases in terms of proton transfer

2:35 understand acids and bases in terms of proton transfer

An acid is a proton (H⁺) donor.

A base is a proton (H⁺) acceptor.

 

A proton is the same as a hydrogen ion. A good way to think about that is to realise that a hydrogen atom is just one proton and zero neutrons surrounded by only one electron. If that atom becomes an ion by the removal of the electron, then only one proton is left.

 

When sulfuric acid reacts with copper (II) oxide (CuO):

Cu²⁺O²⁻ (s)         +         H₂SO₄ (aq)         →         Cu²⁺ (aq)         +         SO₄²⁻ (aq)         +         H₂O (l)

H₂SO₄ is an acid. It donates protons (H⁺) to CuO, the base.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals