4:03 know what is meant by the terms homologous series, functional group and isomerism

4:03 know what is meant by the terms homologous series, functional group and isomerism

A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms that determine the chemical properties of a compound.

For example the functional group of an alcohol is the -OH group and that of alkenes is the C=C carbon to carbon double bond.

 

A Homologous series is a group of substances with:

  • the same general formula
  • similar chemical properties because they have the same functional group
  • a trend (graduation) in physical properties

 

 

Isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but with a different structure.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals