4:08 describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions

4:08 describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions

  • Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation.
  • Crude oil is heated and the oil evaporates.
  • It then goes into the tower. As the vapours rise up the tower the temperature falls.
  • Different sized fractions condense at different heights because they have different boiling points.
  • Smaller molecules condense high up the tower. Larger molecules condense low down in the tower.
  • The fractions are collected.

 

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals