4:18 explain why cracking is necessary, in terms of the balance between supply and demand for different fractions

4:18 explain why cracking is necessary, in terms of the balance between supply and demand for different fractions

Cracking converts long chain hydrocarbons into short chain hydrocarbons.

Long-chain alkanes are broken down into alkanes and alkenes of shorter length.

Crude oil contains a surplus long chains.

Shorter chain hydrocarbons are in greater demand, e.g. petrol.

Cracking also produces alkenes which are used in making polymers and ethanol.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals