4:33 (Triple only) understand the reasons for fermentation, in the absence of air, and at an optimum temperature

4:33 (Triple only) understand the reasons for fermentation, in the absence of air, and at an optimum temperature

In the production of ethanol the process of fermentation is carried out at a low temperature (30⁰-40⁰).

Above 40⁰ the enzymes would permanently lose their structure (denature).

At a temperature lower than 30⁰ the process would be too slow.

 

Fermentation is conducted in the absence of air. In the presence of air (aerobic conditions), enzymes in the yeast produce carbon dioxide and water instead of ethanol.

 

 

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals