4:42 (Triple only) know that esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as food flavourings and in perfumes

4:42 (Triple only) know that esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as food flavourings and in perfumes

Esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells. A volatile liquid is one that turns into to a vapour easily.

Esters are used as food flavourings and in perfumes.

Esters are often described as having a sweet, fruity smell. They typically smell of bananas, raspberries, pears or other fruit because esters occur in all these natural products.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals