4:43 (Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of an ester such as ethyl ethanoate

4:43 (Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of an ester such as ethyl ethanoate

Heating a mixture of ethanoic acid and ethanol produces a liquid called ethyl ethanoate. A few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid must be added for the reaction to work. The sulfuric acid acts as a catalyst.

ethanoic acid           +           ethanol           ⇋           ethyl ethanoate           +           water

CH₃COOH (l)         +         CH₃CH₂OH (l)         ⇋         CH₃COOCH₂CH₃ (l)         +         H₂O (l)

The ethyl ethanoate produced is an ester.

The reaction is called esterification.

The reaction can also be described as a condensation reaction because water is made when two molecules join together.

Notice that the reaction is reversible. Pure reactants are used to maximise the yield of ethyl ethanoate. Pure ethanoic acid is called glacial ethanoic acid.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals