1:16 know what is meant by the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (Aᵣ)
Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom.
Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) but with a different number of neutrons.
Relative atomic mass (Ar): The average mass of an atom compared to 1/12th the mass of carbon-12.
1:19 understand how to deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table
Electrons are found in a series of shells (or energy levels) around the nucleus of an atom.
Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Low energy levels are always filled up first.
Rules for working out the arrangement (configuration) of electrons:
Example – chlorine (Cl)
1) Use the periodic table to look up the atomic number. Chlorine’s atomic number (number of protons) is 17.
2) Remember the number of protons = number of electrons. Therefore chlorine has 17 electrons.
3) Arrange the electrons in levels (shells):
- 1st shell can hold a maximum of 2
- 2nd can hold a maximum of 8
- 3rd can also hold 8
Therefore the electron arrangement for chlorine (17 electrons in total) will be written as 2,8,7
4) Check to make sure that the electrons add up to the right number
The electron arrangement can also be draw in a diagram.
Electron arrangement for the first 20 elements:
1:26 calculate relative formula masses (including relative molecular masses) (Mᵣ) from relative atomic masses (Aᵣ)
Relative formula mass (Mr) is mass of a molecule or compound (on a scale compared to carbon-12).
It is calculated by adding up the relative atomic masses (Ar) of all the atoms present in the formula.
The relative formula mass (Mr) for water (H2O) is 18.
Water = H2O
Atoms present = (2 x H) + (1 x O)
Mr = (2 x 1) + (1 x 16) = 18
1:36 practical: know how to determine the formula of a metal oxide by combustion (e.g. magnesium oxide) or by reduction (e.g. copper(II) oxide)
The formulae of metal oxides can be found experimentally by reacting a metal with oxygen and recording the mass changes.
When magnesium is burned in air, it reacts with oxygen (O2) to form magnesium oxide (MgO).
• Weigh a crucible and lid
• Place the magnesium ribbon in the crucible, replace the lid, and reweigh
• Calculate the mass of magnesium
(mass of crucible + lid + Magnesium – mass of crucible + lid)
• Heat the crucible with lid on until the magnesium burns
(lid prevents magnesium oxide escaping therefore ensuring accurate results)
• Lift the lid from time to time (this allows air to enter)
• Stop heating when there is no sign of further reaction
(this ensures all Mg has reacted)
• Allow to cool and reweigh
• Repeat the heating , cooling and reweigh until two consecutive masses are the same
(this ensures all Mg has reacted and therefore the results will be accurate)
• Calculate the mass of magnesium oxide formed (mass of crucible + lid + Magnesium oxide – mass of crucible + lid)