Topic: Energetics

3:01 know that chemical reactions in which heat energy is given out are described as exothermic, and those in which heat energy is taken in are described as endothermic

Exothermic: chemical reaction in which heat energy is given out.

Endothermic: chemical reaction in which heat energy is taken in.

 

(So, in an exothermic reaction the heat exits from the chemicals so temperature rises)

 

3:02 describe simple calorimetry experiments for reactions such as combustion, displacement, dissolving and neutralisation

Calorimetry allows for the measurement of the amount of energy transferred in a chemical reaction to be calculated.

 

EXPERIMENT1: Displacement, dissolving and neutralisation reactions

Example: magnesium displacing copper from copper(II) sulfate

Method:

  1. 50 cm3 of copper(II) sulfate is measured and transferred into a polystyrene cup.
  2. The initial temperature of the copper sulfate solution is measured and recorded.
  3. Magnesium is added and the maximum temperature is measured and recorded.
  4. The temperature rise is then calculated. For example:
Initial temp. of solution (oC)Maximium temp. of solution (oC)Temperature rise (oC)
24.256.732.5

Note:  mass of 50 cm3 of solution is 50 g

 

EXPERIMENT2: Combustion reactions

To measure the amount of energy produced when a fuel is burnt, the fuel is burnt and the flame is used to heat up some water in a copper container

Example: ethanol is burnt in a small spirit burner

Method:

  1. The initial mass of the ethanol and spirit burner is measured and recorded.
  2. 100cm3 of water is transferred into a copper container and the initial temperature is measured and recorded.
  3. The burner is placed under of copper container and then lit.
  4. The water is stirred constantly with the thermometer until the temperature rises by, say, 30 oC
  5. The flame is extinguished and the maximum temperature of the water is measured and recorded.
  6. The burner and the remaining ethanol is reweighed. For example:
Mass of water (g)Initial temp of water (oC)Maximum temp of water (oC)Temperature rise (oC)Initial mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Final mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Mass of ethanol burnt (g)
10024.254.230.034.4633.680.78

The amount of energy produced per gram of ethanol burnt can also be calculated:

2018-04-25T21:47:30+00:00Categories: (a) Energetics, 3 Physical chemistry, Spec2017|Tags: , |

3:03 calculate the heat energy change from a measured temperature change using the expression Q = mcΔT

Calorimetry allows for the measurement of the amount of energy transferred in a chemical reaction to be calculated.

 

EXPERIMENT1: Displacement, dissolving and neutralisation reactions

Example: magnesium displacing copper from copper(II) sulfate

Method:

  1. 50 cm3 of copper(II) sulfate is measured and transferred into a polystyrene cup.
  2. The initial temperature of the copper sulfate solution is measured and recorded.
  3. Magnesium is added and the maximum temperature is measured and recorded.
  4. The temperature rise is then calculated. For example:
Initial temp. of solution (oC)Maximium temp. of solution (oC)Temperature rise (oC)
24.256.732.5

Note:  mass of 50 cm3 of solution is 50 g

 

EXPERIMENT2: Combustion reactions

To measure the amount of energy produced when a fuel is burnt, the fuel is burnt and the flame is used to heat up some water in a copper container

Example: ethanol is burnt in a small spirit burner

Method:

  1. The initial mass of the ethanol and spirit burner is measured and recorded.
  2. 100cm3 of water is transferred into a copper container and the initial temperature is measured and recorded.
  3. The burner is placed under of copper container and then lit.
  4. The water is stirred constantly with the thermometer until the temperature rises by, say, 30 oC
  5. The flame is extinguished and the maximum temperature of the water is measured and recorded.
  6. The burner and the remaining ethanol is reweighed. For example:
Mass of water (g)Initial temp of water (oC)Maximum temp of water (oC)Temperature rise (oC)Initial mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Final mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Mass of ethanol burnt (g)
10024.254.230.034.4633.680.78

The amount of energy produced per gram of ethanol burnt can also be calculated:

3:05 (Triple only) draw and explain energy level diagrams to represent exothermic and endothermic reactions

The symbol ΔH is used to represent the change in heat (or enthalpy change) of a reaction.

ΔH is measured in kJ/mol (kilojoules per mole).

The change in heat (enthalpy change) can be represented on an energy level diagram. ΔH must also labelled.

 

In an exothermic reaction, the reactants have more energy than the products.

Energy is given out in the form of heat which warms the surroundings.

ΔH is given a negative sign, because the reactants are losing energy as heat, e.g  ΔH = -211 kJ/mol.

 

 

 

 

In an endothermic reaction, the reactants have less energy than the products.

Energy is taken in which cools the surroundings.

ΔH is given a positive sign, because the reactants are gaining energy, e.g  ΔH = +211 kJ/mol.

 

 

 

2018-04-25T21:47:31+00:00Categories: (a) Energetics, 3 Physical chemistry, Spec2017|Tags: , |

3:06 (Triple only) know that bond-breaking is an endothermic process and that bond-making is an exothermic process

During chemical reactions, the bonds in the reactants must be broken, and new ones formed to make the products.

Breaking bonds need energy and therefore is described as endothermic.

Energy is released when new bonds are made and therefore is described as exothermic.

 

If bonds are both broken and made during chemical reactions, why can a reaction overall be describe as either exothermic or endothermic?

Example: hydrogen reacts with oxygen producing water. Overall energy is released and therefore the reaction is exothermic.

         

The reaction is exothermic because the energy needed to break the bonds is less than the energy released in making new bonds.

If a reaction is endothermic then the energy needed to break the bonds is more than the energy released in making new bonds.

2018-04-25T21:47:31+00:00Categories: (a) Energetics, 3 Physical chemistry, Spec2017|Tags: , |

3:07 (Triple only) use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change during a chemical reaction

Each type of chemical bond has a particular bond energy. The bond energy can vary slightly depending what compound the bond is in, therefore average bond energies are used to calculate the change in heat (enthalpy change, ΔH) of a reaction.

Example: dehydration of ethanol

Note: bond energy tables will always be given in the exam, e.g:

BondAverage bond energy in kJ/mol
H-C412
C-C348
O-H463
C-O360
C=C612

So the enthalpy change in this example can be calculated as follows:

Breaking bondsMaking bonds
BondsEnergy (kJ/mol)BondsEnergy (kJ/mol)
H-C x 5(412 x 5) = 2060C-H x 4(412 x 4) = 1648
C-C348C=C612
C-O360O-H x 2(463 x 2) = 926
O-H463
Energy needed to break all the bonds3231Energy released to make all the new bonds3186

Enthalpy change, ΔH = Energy needed to break all the bonds - Energy released to make all the new bonds

ΔH = 3231 – 3186 = +45 kJ/mol (ΔH is positive so the reaction is endothermic)

3:08 practical: investigate temperature changes accompanying some of the following types of change: salts dissolving in water, neutralisation reactions, displacement reactions and combustion reactions

Calorimetry allows for the measurement of the amount of energy transferred in a chemical reaction to be calculated.

 

EXPERIMENT1: Displacement, dissolving and neutralisation reactions

Example: magnesium displacing copper from copper(II) sulfate

Method:

  1. 50 cm3 of copper(II) sulfate is measured and transferred into a polystyrene cup.
  2. The initial temperature of the copper sulfate solution is measured and recorded.
  3. Magnesium is added and the maximum temperature is measured and recorded.
  4. The temperature rise is then calculated. For example:
Initial temp. of solution (oC)Maximium temp. of solution (oC)Temperature rise (oC)
24.256.732.5

Note:  mass of 50 cm3 of solution is 50 g

 

EXPERIMENT2: Combustion reactions

To measure the amount of energy produced when a fuel is burnt, the fuel is burnt and the flame is used to heat up some water in a copper container

Example: ethanol is burnt in a small spirit burner

Method:

  1. The initial mass of the ethanol and spirit burner is measured and recorded.
  2. 100cm3 of water is transferred into a copper container and the initial temperature is measured and recorded.
  3. The burner is placed under of copper container and then lit.
  4. The water is stirred constantly with the thermometer until the temperature rises by, say, 30 oC
  5. The flame is extinguished and the maximum temperature of the water is measured and recorded.
  6. The burner and the remaining ethanol is reweighed. For example:
Mass of water (g)Initial temp of water (oC)Maximum temp of water (oC)Temperature rise (oC)Initial mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Final mass of spirit burner + ethanol (g)Mass of ethanol burnt (g)
10024.254.230.034.4633.680.78

The amount of energy produced per gram of ethanol burnt can also be calculated:

2018-04-25T21:47:31+00:00Categories: (a) Energetics, 3 Physical chemistry, Spec2017|Tags: , |
Select a set of flashcards to study:

     Terminology

     Skills and equipment

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals