Atom: An atom is the smallest part of an element.
Molecule: A molecule is made of a fixed number of atoms covalently bonded together.
1:16 know what is meant by the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (Aᵣ)
Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom.
Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) but with a different number of neutrons.
Relative atomic mass (Ar): The average mass of an atom compared to 1/12th the mass of carbon-12.
1:19 understand how to deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table
Electrons are found in a series of shells (or energy levels) around the nucleus of an atom.
Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Low energy levels are always filled up first.
Rules for working out the arrangement (configuration) of electrons:
Example – chlorine (Cl)
1) Use the periodic table to look up the atomic number. Chlorine’s atomic number (number of protons) is 17.
2) Remember the number of protons = number of electrons. Therefore chlorine has 17 electrons.
3) Arrange the electrons in levels (shells):
- 1st shell can hold a maximum of 2
- 2nd can hold a maximum of 8
- 3rd can also hold 8
Therefore the electron arrangement for chlorine (17 electrons in total) will be written as 2,8,7
4) Check to make sure that the electrons add up to the right number
The electron arrangement can also be draw in a diagram.
Electron arrangement for the first 20 elements:
Metals on the left of the Periodic Table.
Non-Metals on the top-right, plus Hydrogen.
1:22 understand how the electronic configuration of a main group element is related to its position in the Periodic Table
Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
This is why elements from the same group have similar properties.
1:23 Understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties
Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shells, which means they have similar chemical properties.
The noble gases are inert (unreactive) because they have a full outer shell of electrons.
A covalent bond is formed between two non-metal atoms by sharing a pair of electrons in order to fill the outer shell.
Covalent bonding: a strong attraction between a shared pair of electrons and two nuclei.
1:46 understand how to use dot-and-cross diagrams to represent covalent bonds in: diatomic molecules, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens and hydrogen halides, inorganic molecules including water, ammonia and carbon dioxide, organic molecules containing up to two carbon atoms, including methane, ethane, ethene and those containing halogen atoms
Add copper sulfate (CuSO4) to a sample.
If water is present the anhydrous copper sulfate will change from white to blue.