1:32 know what is meant by the terms empirical formula and molecular formula

1:32 know what is meant by the terms empirical formula and molecular formula

The empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio between atoms/ions in a compound.

The molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of each type of element in a molecule.

   For example, for ethane:

        Molecular formula = C2H6

        Empirical formula = CH3

Here are some more examples:

NameMolecular formulaEmpirical Formula
penteneC5H10CH2
buteneC4H8CH2
glucoseC6H12O6CH2O
hydrogen peroxideH2O2HO
propaneC3H8C3H8

Notice from the table that several different molecules can have the same empirical formula, which means that it is not possible to deduce the molecular formula from the empirical formula without some additional information. Also notice that sometimes it is not possible to simplify a molecular formula into simpler whole-number ratio, in which case the empirical formula is equal to the molecular formula.

 

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals