# Topic: Movement and Position

## 1.01 use the following units: kilogram (kg), metre (m), metre/second (m/s), metre/second^2(m/s^2), newton (N), second (s) and newton/kilogram(N/kg)

Make sure you are familiar with units for

Mass: kilogram (kg)

Distance: metre (m)

Speed: metre per second (m/s)

Acceleration: metre per second squared (m/s^2)

Force: newton (N)

Time: second (s)

Gravity: newton/kilogram (N/kg)

## 1.03 plot and explain distance-time graphs

A distance time graph has distance on the y axis (usually in metres) and time on the x axis (usually in seconds). The gradient of the line (change in y/ change in x) is the speed. If the line is flat then the object is stationary.

## 1.05 practical: investigate the motion of everyday objects such as a toy car or tennis ball

Apparatus: stop watch and metre rule

mark the start and end positions for the know distance

use a metre rule to measure the distance

line up front of car with start point, release and start timer

move eyes to end point

stop timer when front of car passes end point

improve by repeating and averaging

make sure car starts from stationary

calculate average speed using : average speed = distance travelled/ time taken

## 1.07 plot and explain velocity-time graphs

on a velocity time graph the velocity-time graph the velocity is on the y axis (usually in m/s) and time is on the x axis (usually in s). If the line is flat then the object is moving at a constant velocity. the gradient of the line is the acceleration. The area under the line is the distance travelled.

## 1.11 describe the effects of forces between bodies such as changes in speed, shape or direction

Forces can act on a body to change the velocity, so the speed, direction or both.

Or forces can change the shape of a body, stretching it squishing it or twisting it.

## 1.13 understand how vector quantities differ from scalar quantities

scalars are quantities with only magnitude (size)

vectors are quantities with magnitude (size) and direction

## 1.14 understand that force is a vector quantity

Force has a magnitude measured in (N) but it also has a direction, a push or a pull, up, down, left or right. So force is a vector.

## 1.20 describe the factors affecting vehicle stopping distance, including speed, mass, road condition and reaction time

Thinking distance Affected by:

Tiredness

Alcohol

speed of the car

Drugs (avoid as drugs can increase or decrease thinking distance)

Braking distance affected by:

Tyre conditions

Brake conditions

speed of the car

mass of the car

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Terminology

Skills and equipment

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

a) States of matter

b) Atoms

c) Atomic structure

d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

f) Ionic compounds

g) Covalent substances

h) Metallic crystals

i) Electrolysis

Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

a) The Periodic Table

b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

d) Oxygen and oxides

e) Hydrogen and water

f) Reactivity series

g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

a) Introduction

b) Alkanes

c) Alkenes

d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

a) Acids, alkalis and salts

b) Energetics

c) Rates of reaction

d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

a) Extraction and uses of metals

b) Crude oil

c) Synthetic polymers

d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

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