(d) Cosmology

8.13 describe the past evolution of the universe and the main arguments in favour of the Big Bang

Scientists believe that about 14 billion years ago all matter in the Universe was in one extremely tiny and dense place. It then suddenly exploded, and has been expanding ever since. This expansion is shown by the red-shift of galaxies and the energy of the explosion can be seen everywhere in the Universe as the CMBR.

8.14 describe evidence that supports the Big Bang theory (red-shift and cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation)

If we examine the light spectra for distant galaxies we can see that the wavelengths of the light have become longer. We call this stretching of the waves ‘red-shift’. It tells us that the galaxies producing the light are moving away from us .The further away a galaxy is, the greater its red-shift, so it is moving even faster. This is evidence that the Universe is expanding and so it supports the Big Bang Theory.


Microwave radiation can be detected EVERYWHERE in the Universe. These are the stretched remains of high energy gamma radiation that would have been produced in the explosion that created the Universe. They have stretched because the Universe is expanding.

8.15 describe that if a wave source is moving relative to an observer there will be a change in the observed frequency and wavelength

This is called the Doppler Effect. If something that emits a wave moves whilst it is doing so (imagine a noisy motorbike coming towards you then going further away, emitting sound waves the whole time) then the wavelength of the sound will become shorter as it is moving towards you, increasing the frequency, and  stretched as it is moving away, decreasing the frequency.


You will hear this as a change in pitch, getting higher as it approaches and lower as it moves away. The same thing happens for a moving object that is emitting light waves –e.g. a galaxy.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

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