A distance time graph has distance on the y axis (usually in metres) and time on the x axis (usually in seconds). The gradient of the line (change in y/ change in x) is the speed. If the line is flat then the object is stationary.
on a velocity time graph the velocity-time graph the velocity is on the y axis (usually in m/s) and time is on the x axis (usually in s). If the line is flat then the object is moving at a constant velocity. the gradient of the line is the acceleration. The area under the line is the distance travelled.
Initially the only force is weight as drag is proportional to velocity. So the object accelerates downwards. As it accelerates the velocity so the drag increases as well. meaning there is a smaller resultant force downwards so a smaller acceleration. Until the object reaches a speed where the drag is equal to the weight meaning there is no acceleration, this velocity is know as terminal velocity.
Elastic behaviour is the ability of a material to recover original shape after the force is removed. in a spring this occurs when the force is lower than the elastic limit. loading and unloading force extension curves can be different as long as it returns to its original shape.
Fuses Stop the flow of current by melting if the current is too high. So protecting sensitive components and people because if the components function at too higher temperature it can cause a fire.
Circuit breakers again break the circuit if current is too high.
Insulation and double insulation prevent people from touching exposed wires and getting shocks.
Earthing provides a low resistance path to the earth so if some one does come into contact with a current instead of flowing through them to the earth giving them a shock it flows through the earthing wire.
Resistance causes transfer of electrical energy to heat energy. Some components are designed to have a high resistance to make sure this happens, for example electrical heaters that have lots of resistors to ensure a high resistance so a lot of heat is produced.
when looking at a circuit a component will be given a power and a voltage appropriate to run at then the current can be calculated so the rating of the fuse can be selected for slightly higher than that.