(b) Magnetism

6.03 describe the properties of magnetically hard and soft materials

Permanent magnets are made of magnetically hard materials such as steel. These materials retain their magnetism once magnetised.

Some materials like iron are magnetically soft. They lose their magnetism once they are no longer exposed to a magnetic field. They are used as temporary magnets such as electromagnets.

6.04 understand the term magnetic field line

Around every magnet there is a region of space where we can detect magnetism (where magnetic materials will be affected).

This is called the magnetic field and in a diagram we represent this with magnetic field lines. 

The magnetic field lines should always point from north to south.

6.05 know that magnetism is induced in some materials when they are placed in a magnetic field

When magnetic materials are bought near or touch the pole of a strong or permanent magnet, they become magnets. This magnetic character is induced in the objects and it is removed when the permanent magnet is removed. This is a temporary magnet

Magnetism is induced in the paperclips so each paperclip can attract another one

6.06 practical: investigate the magnetic field pattern for a permanent bar magnet and between two bar magnets

  1. Place your bar magnet in the centre of the next page and draw around it.
  2. Place a compass at one pole of the bar magnet.
  3. Draw a ‘dot’ to show there the compass is pointing,
  4. Move the compass so the opposite end of the needle is pointing to the dot,
  5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until to reach the other pole of the magnet.
  6. Do this procedure at least 5 times from different points on the pole of the magnet.
    *Tip, try to be as accurate as possible when drawing your dots*
  7. Join up your dots to create the field line plots

6.07 describe how to use two permanent magnets to produce a uniform magnetic field pattern

A uniform magnetic field is comprised of straight, parallel lines which are evenly spaced. Between two opposite charges on flat magnets, a uniform magnetic field is formed.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals