# Topic: Fundamentals of Energy

## 4.01 use the following units: kilogram (kg), joule (J), metre (m), metre/second (m/s), metre/second2 (m/s2), newton (N), second (s) and watt (W)

know the units for

Mass = kilogram (kg)

energy = joule (J)

velocity = metre/second (m/s)

acelleration = metre/ second 2 (m/s2)

force = newton (N)

time = second (s)

power = watt (W)

## 4.02 describe energy transfers involving energy stores: energy stores: chemical, kinetic, gravitational, elastic, thermal, magnetic, electrostatic, nuclear and energy transfers: mechanically, electrically, by heating, by radiation (light and sound)

 Energy Stores: Chemical – e.g. the food we eat Kinetic – movement energy Gravitational – objects that are lifted up Elastic – e.g. from springs Thermal – from hot objects Magnetic – objects in magnetic fields Electrostatic – charged objects Nuclear –  stored within a nucleus

## 4.05 describe a variety of everyday and scientific devices and situations, explaining the transfer of the input energy in terms of the above relationship, including their representation by Sankey diagrams

The energy flow is shown by arrows whose width is proportional to the amount of energy involved. The wasted and useful energy outputs are shown by different arrows.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

a) States of matter

b) Atoms

c) Atomic structure

d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

f) Ionic compounds

g) Covalent substances

h) Metallic crystals

i) Electrolysis

Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

a) The Periodic Table

b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

d) Oxygen and oxides

e) Hydrogen and water

f) Reactivity series

g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

a) Introduction

b) Alkanes

c) Alkenes

d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

a) Acids, alkalis and salts

b) Energetics

c) Rates of reaction

d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

a) Extraction and uses of metals

b) Crude oil

c) Synthetic polymers

d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals