1:19 understand how to deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table
Electrons are found in a series of shells (or energy levels) around the nucleus of an atom.
Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Low energy levels are always filled up first.
Rules for working out the arrangement (configuration) of electrons:
Example – chlorine (Cl)
1) Use the periodic table to look up the atomic number. Chlorine’s atomic number (number of protons) is 17.
2) Remember the number of protons = number of electrons. Therefore chlorine has 17 electrons.
3) Arrange the electrons in levels (shells):
- 1st shell can hold a maximum of 2
- 2nd can hold a maximum of 8
- 3rd can also hold 8
Therefore the electron arrangement for chlorine (17 electrons in total) will be written as 2,8,7
4) Check to make sure that the electrons add up to the right number
The electron arrangement can also be draw in a diagram.
Electron arrangement for the first 20 elements:
1:22 understand how the electronic configuration of a main group element is related to its position in the Periodic Table
Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
This is why elements from the same group have similar properties.
1:23 Understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties
Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shells, which means they have similar chemical properties.
The noble gases are inert (unreactive) because they have a full outer shell of electrons.
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons.
They have the same electronic structures as noble gases.
Metal atoms form positive ions (cations).
Non-metal atoms form negative ions (anions).
Writing the electron configuration of an atom allows you to work out the electron configuration of the ion and therefore the charge on the ion.
Atom = Mg
Electron configuration = 2,8,2
remove the two electrons from the outer shell to achieve the same electron configuration as the nearest noble gas, Neon (Ne 2,8)
Ion = Mg2+
1:40 draw dot-and-cross diagrams to show the formation of ionic compounds by electron transfer, limited to combinations of elements from Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6, 7 only outer electrons need be shown
Sodium chloride, NaCl
Calcium oxide, CaO
Ionic bonding: a strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.