# 5 Solids, liquids and gasses

## 5.01 use the following units: degree Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K), joule (J), kilogram (kg), kilogram/metre3 (kg/m3), metre (m), metre2 (m2), metre3 (m3), metre/second (m/s), metre/second2 (m/s2), newton (N) and pascal (Pa)

The units for:

temperature: degree Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K)

Energy: Joule (J)

mass: Kilogram (kg)

density: kilogram/metre cubed (kg/m3)

distance: metre (m)

area: metre squared (m2)

volume: metre cubed (m3)

velocity: metre per second (m/s)

acceleration: metre per second squared (m/s2)

force: newton (N)

pressure: pascal (Pa)

## 5.04 practical: investigate density using direct measurements of mass and volume

• The density of an object can be found by measuring the mass and volume and applying the formula above to calculate the density.
• For a regular object use a ruler to measure the lengths needed to determine the volume.
• For an irregular object submerge it in water and measure the displaced volume.
• Measure the mass of either type of object using a measuring balance.

## 5.11 practical: obtain a temperature–time graph to show the constant temperature during a change of state

1. Remove the boiling tube of stearic acid from
the water bath
2. Place the tube into a beaker of room
temperature water
3. Add a separate thermometer to the water
4. Take readings from the thermometer in the
stearic acid and the water every minute
[Make sure to avoid parallax error while doing so]
5. Note readings in the table below
6. Note on the table when you observe the stearic
acid change from a liquid to a solid.
7. Plot your results in a graph

## 5.14 practical: investigate the specific heat capacity of materials including water and some solids

1. Set up the apparatus as shown the diagram.
2. Make note of all measurements: current (A), potential difference (V), mass (kg).
3. Use the electronic balance to measure the mass of your
4. Record the initial temperature of you block.
5. Switch on the heater and start your stopwatch.
[You will now leave the heater on for 10 minutes]
6. While the heater is switched on take readings from the
Ammeter and the Voltmeter.
7. Use these to calculate the Thermal Energy that will be
supplied to the block in 10 minutes
8. Record the temperature of your block after 10 minutes.
9. Calculate the Change in Temperature

## 5.20 Explain, for a fixed amount of gas, the qualitative relationship between: pressure and volume at constant temperature, pressure and Kelvin temperature at constant volume.

• As you heat the gas, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, and thus so does their average speed.
• This means more collisions per second with the walls, and they exert a larger force on the wall.
• This causes in the total pressure being exerted by the particles to rise.
• If temperature is constant, the average speed of the particles is constant.
• If the same number of particles is placed in a container of smaller volume they will hit the walls of the container more often.
• More collisions per second means that the particles are exerting a larger force on the wall over the same time, so average force exerted on the walls has increased.
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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

a) States of matter

b) Atoms

c) Atomic structure

d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

f) Ionic compounds

g) Covalent substances

h) Metallic crystals

i) Electrolysis

Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

a) The Periodic Table

b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

d) Oxygen and oxides

e) Hydrogen and water

f) Reactivity series

g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

a) Introduction

b) Alkanes

c) Alkenes

d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

a) Acids, alkalis and salts

b) Energetics

c) Rates of reaction

d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

a) Extraction and uses of metals

b) Crude oil

c) Synthetic polymers

d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

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