Topic: Simple Molecules & Covalent Bonding

Simple Molecules & Covalent Bonding quiz

1. Describe the formation of a covalent bond

Question 1 of 16

2. Which gas will turn damp red litmus paper blue?

Question 2 of 16

3. Where are metals found on the periodic table?

Question 3 of 16

4. In the dot and cross diagram of the outer electrons showing the covalent bonding in a molecule of nitrogen (N₂), how many electrons should be shown in areas 1, 2 and 3?

Question 4 of 16

5. Give the definition of a covalent bond

Question 5 of 16

6. Why is the melting point of a smaller molecule lower than that of a larger molecule?

Question 6 of 16

7. What are the two parts of an atom?

Question 7 of 16

8. On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group?

Question 8 of 16

9. What is meant by the term relative atomic mass, Aᵣ?

Question 9 of 16

10. Explain, in terms of electrons, why isotopes have the same chemical properties

Question 10 of 16

11. Explain why carbon dioxide gas, CO₂, is a gas at room temperature

Question 11 of 16

12. How many electrons in the outer shell of group 3 elements?

Question 12 of 16

13. Which group of atoms has a full outer shell?

Question 13 of 16

14. What is meant by the term molecule?

Question 14 of 16

15. What colour is anhydrous copper (II) sulfate?

Question 15 of 16

16. On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group? What does that tell us about the electron configuration of the atom?

Question 16 of 16


2020-02-22T20:57:55+00:00Categories: Uncategorized|Tags: , |

1:15 know the structure of an atom in terms of the positions, relative masses and relative charges of sub-atomic particles

An atom consists of a central nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons.

This is surrounded by electrons, orbiting in shells (energy levels).

Atoms are neutral because the numbers of electrons and protons are equal.

Electronnegligible (1/1836)-1

1:16a know what is meant by the terms atomic number, mass number and relative atomic mass (Aᵣ)

Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom.

Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

Relative atomic mass (Ar): The average mass of an atom compared to 1/12th the mass of carbon-12.

1:18 understand how elements are arranged in the Periodic Table: in order of atomic number, in groups and periods

The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.


Image result for periodic table groups and periods

Columns are called Groups. They indicate the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom.

Rows are called Periods. They indicate the number of shells (energy levels) in an atom.

1:19 understand how to deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table

Electrons are found in a series of shells (or energy levels) around the nucleus of an atom.

Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons. Low energy levels are always filled up first.

Rules for working out the arrangement (configuration) of electrons:

Example – chlorine (Cl)

1) Use the periodic table to look up the atomic number. Chlorine’s atomic number (number of protons) is 17.

2) Remember the number of protons = number of electrons. Therefore chlorine has 17 electrons.

3) Arrange the electrons in levels (shells):

  • 1st shell can hold a maximum of 2
  • 2nd can hold a maximum of 8
  • 3rd can also hold 8

Therefore the electron arrangement for chlorine (17 electrons in total) will be written as 2,8,7

4) Check to make sure that the electrons add up to the right number

The electron arrangement can also be draw in a diagram.

Electron arrangement for the first 20 elements:

1:21 identify an element as a metal or a non-metal according to its position in the Periodic Table

Metals on the left of the Periodic Table.

Non-Metals on the top-right, plus Hydrogen.

1:22 understand how the electronic configuration of a main group element is related to its position in the Periodic Table

Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.

This is why elements from the same group have similar properties.

1:23 Understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties

Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shells, which means they have similar chemical properties.

1:44 know that a covalent bond is formed between atoms by the sharing of a pair of electrons

A covalent bond is formed between two non-metal atoms by sharing a pair of electrons in order to fill the outer shell.

1:46 understand how to use dot-and-cross diagrams to represent covalent bonds in: diatomic molecules, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens and hydrogen halides, inorganic molecules including water, ammonia and carbon dioxide, organic molecules containing up to two carbon atoms, including methane, ethane, ethene and those containing halogen atoms

1:47 explain why substances with a simple molecular structures are gases or liquids, or solids with low melting and boiling points. The term intermolecular forces of attraction can be used to represent all forces between molecules


Carbon dioxide (CO2) has a simple molecular structure. This just means that it is made up of molecules.

Within each molecule are atoms bonded to each other covalently. These covalent bonds inside the molecules are strong.

However, between the molecules are weak forces of attraction that require little energy to break. These forces are not covalent bonds. This is why simple molecular substances such as carbon dioxide have a low boiling point.

So when carbon dioxide changes from a solid to a gas, for example, that process can be represented as:

CO₂ (s) → CO₂ (g)

Notice that even though there has been a dramatic change of state from solid to gas, the substance before and after the change is always made up of carbon dioxide molecules. During the change of the state the covalent bonds within each molecule remain unbroken. Instead it is the weak forces of attraction between the molecules which have been overcome.


1:48 explain why the melting and boiling points of substances with simple molecular structures increase, in general, with increasing relative molecular mass

Larger molecules tend to have higher boiling points.

This is because larger molecules (molecules with more mass) have more forces of attraction between them. These forces, although weak, must be overcome if the substance is to boil, and larger molecules have more attractions which must be overcome.

2:44 describe tests for these gases: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, chlorine

Tests for gases

GasTestResult if gas present
hydrogen (H2)Use a lit splintGas pops
oxygen (O2)Use a glowing splintGlowing splint relights
carbon dioxide (CO2)Bubble the gas through limewaterLimewater turns cloudy
ammonia (NH3)Use red litmus paperTurns damp red litmus paper blue
chlorine (Cl2)Use damp litmus paperTurns damp litmus paper white (bleaches)

2:49 describe a test for the presence of water using anhydrous copper(II) sulfate

Add anhydrous copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) to a sample.

If water is present the anhydrous copper (II) sulfate will change from white to blue.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

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