(c) Atomic structure

1:14 know what is meant by the terms atom and molecule

Atom: An atom is the smallest part of an element.

Molecule: A molecule is made of a fixed number of atoms covalently bonded together.



1:15 know the structure of an atom in terms of the positions, relative masses and relative charges of sub-atomic particles

An atom consists of a central nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons.

This is surrounded by electrons, orbiting in shells (energy levels).

Atoms are neutral because the numbers of electrons and protons are equal.

Electronnegligible (1/1836)-1

1:16 know what is meant by the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (Aᵣ)

Atomic number: The number of protons in an atom.

Mass number: The number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

Isotopes: Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) but with a different number of neutrons.

Relative atomic mass (Ar): The average mass of an atom compared to 1/12th the mass of carbon-12.

1:17 be able to calculate the relative atomic mass of an element (Aᵣ) from isotopic abundances

75% of chlorine atoms are the type 35Cl (have a mass number of 35)

25% of chlorine atoms are of the type 37Cl (have a mass number of 37)

In order to calculate the relative atomic mass (Ar) of chlorine, the following steps are used:

  1. Multiply the mass of each isotope by its relative abundance
  2. Add those together
  3. Divide by the sum of the relative abundances (normally 100)

    \[ A_r = \frac{( (35 \times 75) + (37 \times 25) )}{100} \]

    \[ A_r = 35.5 \]


Example question:

A sample of bromine contained the two isotopes in the following proportions: bromine-79 = 50.7% and bromine-81 = 49.3%.

Calculate the relative atomic mass (Ar) of bromine.

    \[ A_r = \frac{( (79 \times 50.7) + (81 \times 49.3) )}{100} \]

    \[ A_r = 79.99 \]


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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

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