2:20 in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons, understand the terms: oxidation, reduction, redox, oxidising agent, reducing agent, in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons

2:20 in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons, understand the terms: oxidation, reduction, redox, oxidising agent, reducing agent, in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons

Oxidation

  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons. For example a sodium atom (Na) loses an electron to become a sodium ion (Na⁺). Another example is a chloride ion (Cl⁻) losing an electron to become a chlorine atom (Cl).
  • Another definition of oxidation is the gain of oxygen. For example if carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the carbon is being oxidised.

 

Reduction

  • Reduction is the gain of electrons. For example a sodium ion (Na⁺) gains an electron to become a sodium ion (Na). Another example is a chlorine atom (Cl) gaining an electron to become a chloride atom (Cl⁻).
  • Another definition of reduction is the loss of oxygen. For example when aluminium oxide is broken down to produce aluminium and oxygen, the aluminium is being reduced.

 

Redox: A reaction involving oxidation and reduction.

A good way to remember the definitions of oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons is:

  • OILRIG : Oxidation Is the Loss of electrons and Reduction Is the Gain of electrons

 

Oxidising agent: A substance that gives oxygen or removes electrons (it is itself reduced).

 

Reducing agent: A substance that takes oxygen or gives electrons (it is itself oxidised).

 

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     Terminology

     Skills and equipment

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals