1:02 understand the interconversions between the three states of matter in terms of: the names of the interconversions, how they are achieved and the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of the particles

1:02 understand the interconversions between the three states of matter in terms of: the names of the interconversions, how they are achieved and the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of the particles

Melting: When a solid is heated, the energy makes the particles vibrate fast enough so that the forces of attraction between the particles break. For example   H2O(s) –> H2O(l)

Freezing: When a liquid is cooled, the particles move slow enough so that the forces of attraction between them will hold them into a solid. For example   H2O(l) –> H2O(s)

Boiling: When a liquid is heated strongly, the energy makes the particles move fast enough so that all forces of attraction are broken. For example   H2O(l) –> H2O(g)

Condensing: When a gas is cooled, the particles move slow enough so that the forces of attraction between them will hold them as a liquid. For example   H2O(g) –> H2O(l)

Sublimation: A small number of substances have the ability to change directly from a solid to a gas when heated. For example   CO2(s) –> CO2(g)

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals