2:19 understand how the rusting of iron may be prevented by: barrier methods, galvanising and sacrificial protection

2:19 understand how the rusting of iron may be prevented by: barrier methods, galvanising and sacrificial protection

Barrier Methods: Rusting may be prevented by stopping the water and oxygen getting to the iron with a barrier of grease, oil, paint or plastic.

Galvanising: (coating in zinc) also prevents water and oxygen getting to the iron, but with galvanising even if the barrier is broken the more reactive zinc corrodes before the less reactive iron. During the process, the zinc loses electrons to form zinc ions.

Sacrificial Protection: Zinc blocks are attached to iron boat hulls and underground pipelines to act as sacrificial anodes. Zinc is more reactive than iron, so oxygen in the air reacts with the zinc to form a layer of zinc oxide instead of the iron.

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals