3:18 describe reversible reactions such as the dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulfate and the effect of heat on ammonium chloride

3:18 describe reversible reactions such as the dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulfate and the effect of heat on ammonium chloride

Dehydration of copper(II) sulfate

 

Heating ammonium chloride

On heating, white solid ammonium chloride decomposes forming ammonia and hydrogen chloride gas. On cooling, ammonia and hydrogen chloride react to form a white solid of ammonium chloride:

 

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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals