2:01 understand how the similarities in the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water provide evidence for their recognition as a family of elements

Group 1 metals such as potassium, sodium and lithium, react with water to produce a metal hydroxide and hydrogen. For example:

          lithium   +   water   →   lithium hydroxide   +   hydrogen

          2Li (s)   +   2H₂O (l)   →   2LiOH (aq)   +   H₂ (g)

The observations for the reaction of water with either potassium or sodium or lithium have the following similarities:

  1. fizzing (hydrogen is produced)
  2. metal floats and moves around on the water
  3. metal disappears

In each case a metal hydroxide solution is produced.

These similarities in the reactions provide evidence that the 3 metals are in the same group of the Periodic Table (i.e. have the same number of electrons in their outer shell).