4:18 explain why cracking is necessary, in terms of the balance between supply and demand for different fractions

Cracking converts long chain hydrocarbons into short chain hydrocarbons.

Long-chain alkanes are broken down into alkanes and alkenes of shorter length.

Crude oil contains a surplus long chains.

Shorter chain hydrocarbons are in greater demand, e.g. petrol.

Cracking also produces alkenes which are used in making polymers and ethanol.