Specification (2017)

Specification (2017)2017-11-09T22:20:05+00:00
1 Principles of chemistry
(a) States of matter
1:01understand the three states of matter in terms of the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles
1:02understand the interconversions between the three states of matter in terms of: the names of the interconversions, how they are achieved and the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of the particles
1:03understand how the results of experiments involving the dilution of coloured solutions and diffusion of gases can be explained
1:04know what is meant by the terms: solvent, solute, solution, saturated solution
1:05(Triple only) know what is meant by the term solubility in the units g per 100g of solvent
1:06(Triple only) understand how to plot and interpret solubility curves
1:07(Triple only) practical: investigate the solubility of a solid in water at a specific temperature
(b) Elements, compounds and mixtures
1:08understand how to classify a substance as an element, a compound or a mixture
1:09understand that a pure substance has a fixed melting and boiling point, but that a mixture may melt or boil over a range of temperatures
1:10describe these experimental techniques for the separation of mixtures: simple distillation, fractional distillation, filtration, crystallisation, paper chromatography
1:11understand how a chromatogram provides information about the composition of a mixture
1:12understand how to use the calculation of Rf values to identify the components of a mixture
1:13practical: investigate paper chromatography using inks/food colourings
(c) Atomic structure
1:14know what is meant by the terms atom and molecule
1:15know the structure of an atom in terms of the positions, relative masses and relative charges of sub-atomic particles
1:16know what is meant by the terms atomic number, mass number, isotopes and relative atomic mass (Aᵣ)
1:17be able to calculate the relative atomic mass of an element (Aᵣ) from isotopic abundances
(d) The Periodic Table
1:18understand how elements are arranged in the Periodic Table: in order of atomic number, in groups and periods
1:19understand how to deduce the electronic configurations of the first 20 elements from their positions in the Periodic Table
1:20understand how to use electrical conductivity and the acid-base character of oxides to classify elements as metals or non-metals
1:21identify an element as a metal or a non-metal according to its position in the Periodic Table
1:22understand how the electronic configuration of a main group element is related to its position in the Periodic Table
1:23Understand why elements in the same group of the Periodic Table have similar chemical properties
1:24understand why the noble gases (Group 0) do not readily react
(e) Chemical formulae, equations and calculations
1:25write word equations and balanced chemical equations (including state symbols): for reactions studied in this specification and for unfamiliar reactions where suitable information is provided
1:26calculate relative formula masses (including relative molecular masses) (Mᵣ) from relative atomic masses (Aᵣ)
1:27know that the mole (mol) is the unit for the amount of a substance
1:28understand how to carry out calculations involving amount of substance, relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) and relative formula mass (Mᵣ)
1:29calculate reacting masses using experimental data and chemical equations
1:30calculate percentage yield
1:31understand how the formulae of simple compounds can be obtained experimentally, including metal oxides, water and salts containing water of crystallisation
1:32know what is meant by the terms empirical formula and molecular formula
1:33calculate empirical and molecular formulae from experimental data
1:34(Triple only) understand how to carry out calculations involving amount of substance, volume and concentration (in mol/dm³) of solution
1:35(Triple only) understand how to carry out calculations involving gas volumes and the molar volume of a gas (24dm³ and 24,000cm³ at room temperature and pressure (rtp))
1:36practical: know how to determine the formula of a metal oxide by combustion (e.g. magnesium oxide) or by reduction (e.g. copper(II) oxide)
(f) Ionic bonding
1:37understand how ions are formed by electron loss or gain
1:38know the charges of these ions: metals in Groups 1, 2 and 3, non-metals in Groups 5, 6 and 7, Ag⁺, Cu²⁺, Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺, hydrogen (H⁺), hydroxide (OH⁻), ammonium (NH₄⁺), carbonate (CO₃²⁻), nitrate (NO₃⁻), sulfate (SO₄²⁻)
1:39write formulae for compounds formed between the ions listed in 1:38
1:40draw dot-and-cross diagrams to show the formation of ionic compounds by electron transfer, limited to combinations of elements from Groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6, 7 only outer electrons need be shown
1:41understand ionic bonding in terms of electrostatic attractions
1:42understand why compounds with giant ionic lattices have high melting and boiling points
1:43Know that ionic compounds do not conduct electricity when solid, but do conduct electricity when molten and in aqueous solution
(g) Covalent bonding
1:44know that a covalent bond is formed between atoms by the sharing of a pair of electrons
1:45understand covalent bonds in terms of electrostatic attractions
1:46understand how to use dot-and-cross diagrams to represent covalent bonds in: diatomic molecules, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens and hydrogen halides, inorganic molecules including water, ammonia and carbon dioxide, organic molecules containing up to two carbon atoms, including methane, ethane, ethene and those containing halogen atoms
1:47explain why substances with a simple molecular structures are gases or liquids, or solids with low melting and boiling points. The term intermolecular forces of attraction can be used to represent all forces between molecules
1:48explain why the melting and boiling points of substances with simple molecular structures increase, in general, with increasing relative molecular mass
1:49explain why substances with giant covalent structures are solids with high melting and boiling points
1:50explain how the structures of diamond, graphite and C60 fullerene influence their physical properties, including electrical conductivity and hardness
1:51know that covalent compounds do not usually conduct electricity
(h) Metallic bonding
1:52(Triple only) know how to represent a metallic lattice by a 2-D diagram
1:53(Triple only) understand metallic bonding in terms of electrostatic attractions
1:54(Triple only) explain typical physical properties of metals, including electrical conductivity and malleability
(i) Electrolysis
1:55(Triple only) understand why covalent compounds do not conduct electricity
1:56(Triple only) understand why ionic compounds conduct electricity only when molten or in aqueous solution
1:57(Triple only) know that anion and cation are terms used to refer to negative and positive ions respectively
1:58(Triple only) describe experiments to investigate electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of molten compounds (including lead(II) bromide) and aqueous solutions (including sodium chloride, dilute sulfuric acid and copper(II) sulfate) and to predict the products
1:59(Triple only) write ionic half-equations representing the reactions at the electrodes during electrolysis and understand why these reactions are classified as oxidation or reduction
1:60(Triple only) practical: investigate the electrolysis of aqueous solutions
2 Inorganic chemistry
(a) Group 1 (alkali metals) – lithium, sodium and potassium
2:01understand how the similarities in the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water provide evidence for their recognition as a family of elements
2:02understand how the differences between the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with air and water provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 1
2:03use knowledge of trends in Group 1 to predict the properties of other alkali metals
2:04(Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 1 in terms of electronic configurations
(b) Group 7 (halogens) – chlorine, bromine and iodine
2:05know the colours, physical states (at room temperature) and trends in physical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium
2:06use knowledge of trends in Group 7 to predict the properties of other halogens
2:07understand how displacement reactions involving halogens and halides provide evidence for the trend in reactivity in Group 7
2:08(Triple only) explain the trend in reactivity in Group 7 in terms of electronic configurations
(c) Gases in the atmosphere
2:09know the approximate percentages by volume of the four most abundant gases in dry air
2:10understand how to determine the percentage by volume of oxygen in air using experiments involving the reactions of metals (e.g. iron) and non-metals (e.g. phosphorus) with air
2:11describe the combustion of elements in oxygen, including magnesium, hydrogen and sulfur
2:12describe the formation of carbon dioxide from the thermal decomposition of metal carbonates, including copper(II) carbonate
2:13know that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and that increasing amounts in the atmosphere may contribute to climate change
2:14Practical: determine the approximate percentage by volume of oxygen in air using a metal or a non-metal
(d) Reactivity series
2:15understand how metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on their reactions with: water and dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid
2:16understand how metals can be arranged in a reactivity series based on their displacement reactions between: metals and metal oxides, metals and aqueous solutions of metal salts
2:17know the order of reactivity of these metals: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver, gold
2:18know the conditions under which iron rusts
2:19understand how the rusting of iron may be prevented by: barrier methods, galvanising and sacrificial protection
2:20in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons, understand the terms: oxidation, reduction, redox, oxidising agent, reducing agent, in terms of gain or loss of oxygen and loss or gain of electrons
2:21practical: investigate reactions between dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids and metals (e.g. magnesium, zinc and iron)
(e) Extraction and uses of metals
2:22(Triple only) know that most metals are extracted from ores found in the Earth’s crust and that unreactive metals are often found as the uncombined element
2:23(Triple only) explain how the method of extraction of a metal is related to its position in the reactivity series, illustrated by carbon extraction for iron and electrolysis for aluminium
2:24(Triple only) be able to comment on a metal extraction process, given appropriate information
2:25(Triple only) explain the uses of aluminium, copper, iron and steel in terms of their properties the types of steel will be limited to low-carbon (mild), high-carbon and stainless
2:26(Triple only) know that an alloy is a mixture of a metal and one or more elements, usually other metals or carbon
2:27(Triple only) explain why alloys are harder than pure metals
(f) Acids, alkalis and titrations
2:28describe the use of litmus, phenolphthalein and methyl orange to distinguish between acidic and alkaline solutions
2:29understand how to use the pH scale, from 0–14, can be used to classify solutions as strongly acidic (0–3), weakly acidic (4–6), neutral (7), weakly alkaline (8–10) and strongly alkaline (11–14)
2:30describe the use of Universal Indicator to measure the approximate pH value of an aqueous solution
2:31know that acids in aqueous solution are a source of hydrogen ions and alkalis in a aqueous solution are a source of hydroxide ions
2:32know that bases can neutralise acids
2:33(Triple only) describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration
(g) Acids, bases and salt preparations
2:34know the general rules for predicting the solubility of ionic compounds in water: common sodium, potassium and ammonium compounds are soluble, all nitrates are soluble, common chlorides are soluble, except those of silver and lead(II), common sulfates are soluble, except for those of barium, calcium and lead(II), common carbonates are insoluble, except for those of sodium, potassium and ammonium, common hydroxides are insoluble except for those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble)
2:35understand acids and bases in terms of proton transfer
2:36understand that an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor
2:37describe the reactions of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid with metals, bases and metal carbonates (excluding the reactions between nitric acid and metals) to form salts
2:38know that metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia can act as bases, and that alkalis are bases that are soluble in water
2:39describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an insoluble reactant
2:40(Triple only) describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an acid and alkali
2:41(Triple only) describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt, starting from two soluble reactants
2:42practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting from copper(II) oxide
2:43(Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of pure, dry lead(II) sulfate
(h) Chemical tests
2:44describe tests for these gases: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, chlorine
2:45describe how to carry out a flame test
2:46know the colours formed in flame tests for these cations: Li⁺ is red, Na⁺ is yellow, K⁺ is lilac, Ca²⁺ is orange-red, Cu²⁺ is blue-green
2:47describe tests for these cations: NH₄⁺ using sodium hydroxide solution and identifying the gas evolved, Cu²⁺, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ using sodium hydroxide solution
2:48describe tests for these anions: Cl⁻, Br⁻ and I⁻ using acidified silver nitrate solution, SO₄²⁻ using acidified barium chloride solution, CO₃²⁻ using hydrochloric acid and identifying the gas evolved
2:49describe a test for the presence of water using anhydrous copper(II) sulfate
2:50describe a physical test to show whether a sample of water is pure
3 Physical chemistry
(a) Energetics
3:01know that chemical reactions in which heat energy is given out are described as exothermic, and those in which heat energy is taken in are described as endothermic
3:02describe simple calorimetry experiments for reactions such as combustion, displacement, dissolving and neutralisation
3:03calculate the heat energy change from a measured temperature change using the expression Q = mcΔT
3:04calculate the molar enthalpy change (ΔH) from the heat energy change, Q
3:05(Triple only) draw and explain energy level diagrams to represent exothermic and endothermic reactions
3:06(Triple only) know that bond-breaking is an endothermic process and that bond-making is an exothermic process
3:07(Triple only) use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change during a chemical reaction
3:08practical: investigate temperature changes accompanying some of the following types of change: salts dissolving in water, neutralisation reactions, displacement reactions and combustion reactions
(b) Rates of reaction
3:09describe experiments to investigate the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction
3:10describe the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, pressure of a gas, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction
3:11explain the effects of changes in surface area of a solid, concentration of a solution, pressure of a gas and temperature on the rate of a reaction in terms of particle collision theory
3:12know that a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a reaction, but is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
3:13know that a catalyst works by providing an alternative pathway with lower activation energy
3:14(Triple only) draw and explain reaction profile diagrams showing ΔH and activation energy
3:15practical: investigate the effect of changing the surface area of marble chips and of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute hydrochloric acid
3:16practical: investigate the effect of different solids on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution
(c) Reversible reactions and equilibria
3:17know that some reactions are reversible and this is indicated by the symbol ⇌ in equations
3:18describe reversible reactions such as the dehydration of hydrated copper(II) sulfate and the effect of heat on ammonium chloride
3:19(Triple only) know that a reversible reaction can reach dynamic equilibrium in a sealed container
3:20(Triple only) know that the characteristics of a reaction at dynamic equilibrium are: the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, and the concentrations of reactants and products remain constant
3:21(Triple only) understand why a catalyst does not affect the position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction
3:22(Triple only) predict, with reasons, the effect of changing either pressure or temperature on the position of equilibrium in a reversible reaction (references to Le Chatelier's principle are not required)
4 Organic chemistry
(a) Introduction to Organic Chemistry
4:01know that a hydrocarbon is a compound of hydrogen and carbon only
4:02understand how to represent organic molecules using empirical formulae, molecular formulae, general formulae, structural formulae and displayed formulae
4:03know what is meant by the terms homologous series, functional group and isomerism
4:04understand how to name compounds relevant to this specification using the rules of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature students will be expected to name compounds containing up to six carbon atoms
4:05understand how to write the possible structural and displayed formulae of an organic molecule given its molecular formula
4:06understand how to classify reactions of organic compounds as substitution, addition and combustion. Knowledge of reaction mechanisms is not required
(b) Crude oil
4:07know that crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
4:08describe how the industrial process of fractional distillation separates crude oil into fractions
4:09know the names and uses of the main fractions obtained from crude oil: refinery gases, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and bitumen
4:10know the trend in colour, boiling point and viscosity of the main fractions
4:11know that a fuel is a substance that, when burned, releases heat energy
4:12know the possible products of complete and incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons with oxygen in the air
4:13understand why carbon monoxide is poisonous, in terms of its effect on the capacity of blood to transport oxygen references to haemoglobin are not required
4:14know that, in car engines, the temperature reached is high enough to allow nitrogen and oxygen from air to react, forming oxides of nitrogen
4:15explain how the combustion of some impurities in hydrocarbon fuels results in the formation of sulfur dioxide
4:16understand how sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain
4:17describe how long-chain alkanes are converted to alkenes and shorter-chain alkanes by catalytic cracking (using silica or alumina as the catalyst and a temperature in the range of 600–700⁰C)
4:18explain why cracking is necessary, in terms of the balance between supply and demand for different fractions
(c) Alkanes
4:19know the general formula for alkanes
4:20explain why alkanes are classified as saturated hydrocarbons
4:21understand how to draw the structural and displayed formulae for alkanes with up to five carbon atoms in the molecule, and to name the unbranched-chain isomers
4:22describe the reactions of alkanes with halogens in the presence of ultraviolet radiation, limited to mono-substitution knowledge of reaction mechanisms is not required
(d) Alkenes
4:23know that alkenes contain the functional group >C=C<
4:24know the general formula for alkenes
4:25explain why alkenes are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons
4:26understand how to draw the structural and displayed formulae for alkenes with up to four carbon atoms in the molecule, and name the unbranched-chain isomers. Knowledge of cis/trans or E/Z notation is not required
4:27describe the reactions of alkenes with bromine, to produce dibromoalkanes
4:28describe how bromine water can be used to distinguish between an alkane and an alkene
(e) Alcohols
4:29(Triple only) know that alcohols contain the functional group −OH
4:30(Triple only) understand how to draw structural and displayed formulae for methanol, ethanol, propanol (propan-1-ol only) and butanol (butan-1-ol only), and name each compound, the names propanol and butanol are acceptable
4:31(Triple only) know that ethanol can be oxidised by: burning in air or oxygen (complete combustion), reaction with oxygen in the air to form ethanoic acid (microbial oxidation), heating with potassium dichromate(VI) in dilute sulfuric acid to form ethanoic acid
4:32(Triple only) know that ethanol can be manufactured by: 1) reacting ethene with steam in the presence of a phosphoric acid catalyst at a temperature of about 300⁰C and a pressure of about 60–70atm; and 2) the fermentation of glucose, in the absence of air, at an optimum temperature of about 30⁰C and using the enzymes in yeast
4:33(Triple only) understand the reasons for fermentation, in the absence of air, and at an optimum temperature
(f) Carboxylic acids
4:34(Triple only) know that carboxylic acids contain the functional group -COOH
4:35(Triple only) understand how to draw structural and displayed formulae for unbranched- chain carboxylic acids with up to four carbon atoms in the molecule, and name each compound
4:36(Triple only) describe the reactions of aqueous solutions of carboxylic acids with metals and metal carbonates
4:37(Triple only) know that vinegar is an aqueous solution containing ethanoic acid
(g) Esters
4:38(Triple only) know that esters contain the functional group -COO-
4:39(Triple only) know that ethyl ethanoate is the ester produced when ethanol and ethanoic acid react in the presence of an acid catalyst
4:40(Triple only) understand how to write the structural and displayed formulae of ethyl ethanoate
4:41(Triple only) understand how to write the structural and displayed formulae of an ester, given the name or formula of the alcohol and carboxylic acid from which it is formed and vice versa
4:42(Triple only) know that esters are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as food flavourings and in perfumes
4:43(Triple only) practical: prepare a sample of an ester such as ethyl ethanoate
(h) Synthetic polymers
4:44know that an addition polymer is formed by joining up many small molecules called monomers
4:45understand how to draw the repeat unit of an addition polymer, including poly(ethene), poly(propene), poly(chloroethene) and (poly)tetrafluroethene
4:46understand how to deduce the structure of a monomer from the repeat unit of an addition polymer and vice versa
4:47explain problems in the disposal of addition polymers, including: their inertness and inability to biodegrade, the production of toxic gases when they are burned
4:48(Triple only) know that condensation polymerisation, in which a dicarboxylic acid reacts with a diol, produces a polyester and water
4:49(Triple only) Understand how to write the structural and displayed formula of a polyester, showing the repeat unit, given the formulae of the monomers from which it is formed, including the reaction of ethanedioic acid and ethanediol:
4:50(Triple only) know that some polyesters, known as biopolyesters, are biodegradable
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Section 1: Principles of chemistry

      a) States of matter

      b) Atoms

      c) Atomic structure

     d) Relative formula masses and molar volumes of gases

     e) Chemical formulae and chemical equations

     f) Ionic compounds

     g) Covalent substances

     h) Metallic crystals

     i) Electrolysis

 Section 2: Chemistry of the elements

     a) The Periodic Table

     b) Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium

     c) Group 7 elements: chlorine, bromine and iodine

     d) Oxygen and oxides

     e) Hydrogen and water

     f) Reactivity series

     g) Tests for ions and gases

Section 3: Organic chemistry

     a) Introduction

     b) Alkanes

     c) Alkenes

     d) Ethanol

Section 4: Physical chemistry

     a) Acids, alkalis and salts

     b) Energetics

     c) Rates of reaction

     d) Equilibria

Section 5: Chemistry in industry

     a) Extraction and uses of metals

     b) Crude oil

     c) Synthetic polymers

     d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals