• Current flows in the wire/coil.
  • This creates a magnetic field around the wire/coil.
  • This magnetic field interacts with the field from the permanent magnet.
  • This produces a force on the wire/coil which moves the wire/coil.
  • The split-ring commutator changes the direction of the current every half turn as it spins. This reverses the direction of the forces, allowing the coil to continue spinning.


  • An alternating current from the source passes though the coils in the speaker.
  • This current is constantly changing direction and magnitude
  • This current creates a magnetic field around the coil
  • This field interacts with the magnetic field from the permanent magnets
  • Creating a constantly changing force on the coil.
  • This causes the coil to vibrate in and out as the direction of the force changes, moving the cone
  • The cone causes vibrations which we hear as sound waves.